Tips for Tutoring-'Arba'
Prof. Dr. Cho, Sang-Sik(Dept. of Education)
On these days most of students are devoting themselves to their course of study and working for their keep at the same time. Activities of this kind are called 'Arba' which is short for 'Arbeit'. This word comes from German and corresponds, as known, to labor in English. As the so-called 'Arba' means all sorts of extra-curricular activities to earn pocket money for students as part-time jobs on the whole, it is characterized as an earthly and improvised process for the students concerned.
But the Germans who give the term 'Arbeit' a meaning of morality and virtue may be regrettable to hear the practical use of this word in Korea. The term labor can mind them of a moral that their forefather has made as a solid tradition. We can take out a few of important tips from its derivation. So to speak, it can correct the common and thoughtless use of 'Arbeit'. In particular, a tutoring-'Arba' which is popular among our students can offer a truthful meaning of labor, if we keep in mind its German origin.
To begin with, we must advise our students participating in 'Arba'to appreciate the meaning of labor. The general recommendation is as follows.
Firstly, don't regard 'Arba' as only a momentary job. This means that 'Arba'can be also a critical chance for your future. A key point says. ; it is useless to overstrain yourselves in doing 'Arba'. But you must give yourselves up entirely to it. As teaching pupils, you may be not only select on of the callings in the educational field, but also understand the developmental process of human being. If so, it is natural that you should cope with your tutoring seriously and faithfully. Secondly, so it requires a trustworthy relationship with pupils, thorough preparation for teaching, an honest performance of a tutoring contract with their parents etc. In strict sense, 'Arba' is not different from labor at all.
How can you teach your pupils in their home or in private institute? Especially if you have not learned didactic-related skills, you could also experience a kind of reality shock. For this reason I'd like to present few tips of instructional design in general.(see the book which Steven Hackbarth wrote in 1996.) The design consists of five phases as follows.
Phase I : Diagnose
Phase II: Design
Phase III: Procure
Phase IV: Produce
Phase V: Refine
In phase I you must figure out what pupils need to know. The objectives of instruction generally are specified by school districts, derived from textbooks, and negotiated among teachers, pupils, and parents. And then you must assess what pupils already know. Before starting any tutoring, you inevitably will draw on your experience to anticipate what your pupils have learned in previous courses. However, you also should examine pupil files to ascertain academic performance, test results, interests, and special talents.
Phase II design focuses on assessing learning achievement. Evaluation instruments and methods should be based on the contents of instrumental goals. Questions should reflect the level of performance called for. Then you identify effective instrumental strategies. For any given objectives, pupils, and subject matter, the single most potent factor in teaching effectiveness is combination of instrumental strategies. After applying instrumental strategies, you should select suitable media. Print, visual, and electronic media differ greatly in the rage of strategies they can handle and in capacity to reach wide audience at low cost. Then learning activities within program follow. Categorize planned lectures, brainstorming, semantic mapping, text readings, films, etc., according to function. At the same time you should plan introductory activities. Whether you are designing a single lesson or an entire course, you must relate it to what the pupils have done previously. Introductory activities include assigned readings, vocabulary lessons, preparatory remarks, and asking such questions "What do you know?" "What do you need or want to know?" and "How could you find out?" These refresh pupils' memories of previously learned material and provide them with the background needed to grasp what is to come and how they might seek answers on their own.
In phase III procure you should secure material at hand. Locate readily available notes, pictures, handouts, books, films, etc., that relate closely to the subject you intend to teach. You should also obtain new materials. Search commercial catalogs, periodicals, and on-line databases to find learning materials related to your subject and most appropriate for your pupils.
You should modify existing materials in phase IV produce. Add or delete sections, change vocabulary, and rearrange presentation to suit your pupils and the objectives set for them. Then you craft new materials. If suitable materials are not readily available at a reasonable price, you may want to produce your own. Production of simple media like lectures, printed handouts, overhead transparencies, slides, and audiotapes should be routine.
The last phase refine is composed of conducting small-scale test, of evaluating procedures and achievements, of revising program accordingly, of conducting total test, of evaluating procedures and achievements, and of revising in anticipation of next school task. Concretely speaking, try out a prototype of your teaching program with a sample of pupils or, if such a sample is not available, with colleagues or family. Evaluation of progress during the small-scale test should focus on the quality of teaching and learning. Draw on, then, evaluation data to revise the course where appropriate. You present the revised program to your pupils within the context of the entire school curriculum. In evaluating procedures and achievements, you should employ instruments earlier developed to test for knowledge comprehension, skill performance, and attitude change. You also may assess the extent to which pupils can apply what they have learned to the solution of problems. Finally your course objectives and the characteristics of your pupils remain constant in some important respects from day to day.
The more or less technical and schematized procedures indicate only a simple teaching guide. You need a further learning of this field. What you should keep in mind all the time is to form a reliable and intimate relationship with your pupils. The best teaching method is just You!
Prof. Dr. Cho Sang-Sik email@example.com
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